Types of Doctors in Nigeria

Doctors are life savers. They play important roles in diagnosing, preventing, and treating a vast range of diseases that affect individuals and the community at large. In this article, we’ll discuss the types of doctors in Nigeria, the roles they perform, the conditions they treat and the procedures they can perform.

Types of Doctors in Nigeria

 This is a list of medical doctors in Nigeria:

  • Cardiologist

Cardiologists specialize in disorders of the cardiovascular system (heart and blood vessels).  Cardiologists perform medical diagnoses and treat cardiovascular diseases in adults. Examples of diseases treated by cardiologists are cardiac arrest, hypertension, coronary heart diseases, cardiac arrhythmia, and congenital heart defects. Treatments of the cardiovascular system that involve surgery are not under the specialty of cardiologists, however, they can perform minimally invasive procedures such as peacemaker implantation and cardiac catheterization with additional training. 

  • Paediatric Cardiologist 

Paediatric cardiologists are doctors that specialise in the diagnosis and treatment of cardiovascular disorders in children. They do not perform surgical procedures that concern the heart and blood vessels. 

  • Dentist 

Dentists are health professionals who are trained in dentistry. This means that dentists perform diagnosis, prevention, management and treatment of diseases and conditions of the oral cavity(gum, teeth and tongue). The treatments dentists perform include dental restoration, gum therapy, orthodontics, endodontic therapy and orthodontics. 

  • Audiologist 

Audiologists are trained to identify, diagnose, treat and monitor disorders of the auditory and vestibular systems of the human body. They are responsible for dispensing, managing, and rehabilitating hearing aids, and mapping hearing implants and bone conduction implants for suitable candidates. Audiologists also help train later-deafened adults so they learn coping and compensation skills. 

  • ENT Physician 

ENT stands for ear, nose and throat. ENT physicians are medical professionals that specialize in diagnosing and treating diseases of the ear, nose, throat, head, neck and base of the skull. ENT physicians treat patients with functional diseases that affect their senses and their ability to perform activities like eating, drinking, speaking, breathing, and swallowing. They also carry out surgical management and the reconstruction of benign tumours and cancer of the head and neck. 

  • Gynaecologist 

Gynaecologists are medical doctors that specialise in treating diseases associated with the female reproductive organs such as the uterus, cervix, vagina, vulva, fallopian tubes and breasts. They are trained to perform medical and surgical therapies to treat a range of concerns such as heavy menstrual period, infertility, cancer of reproductive organs, post-menopausal osteoporosis and other vaginal diseases. Some common procedures that gynaecologists perform include surgical treatment for urinary continence and the removal of uterine content for various reasons. 

  • Orthopaedic Surgeon

Orthopaedic surgeons are specialists in treating conditions involving the musculoskeletal system using surgical and non-surgical procedures. Patients that seek treatment from an orthopaedic surgeon include those that have spine diseases, sports injuries, infectious tumours, and musculoskeletal trauma, to name a few. Orthopaedic surgeons may specialise in certain areas of medicine such as hand and upper extremity, shoulder and elbow, spine surgery, hip and knee surgery, foot and ankle surgery, total joint reconstruction, and orthopaedic trauma. 

  • Paediatrician 

Paediatricians are medical professionals that are trained to provide medical care for infants, children, adolescents and young adults. As children differ from adults physiologically, paediatricians take into account this difference when considering symptoms, prescribing medications and carrying out diagnosis of illnesses. 

  • Psychiatrist

Psychiatrists are medical doctors who specialise in psychiatry. They diagnose, prevent, study and treat conditions of mental health. Psychiatrists evaluate patients with mental disorders to ascertain if the symptoms are due to a physical illness, mental issues or a combination of both. 

  • Neurosurgeon 

Neurosurgeons are specialists that are concerned with diagnosing and surgical treatment of the brain, spinal cord and peripheral nervous system. Common treatments that neurosurgeons handle include stroke, vascular disorders, tumours, congenital anomalies, trauma and degenerative diseases of the spine, to name a few. 

  • Radiologist 

Radiologists are doctors who are specialised in diagnosing and treating internal and external injuries and diseases by utilising medical imaging techniques. The image-guided therapeutic interventions radiologists use include X-rays, computed tomography, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and fusion imaging, among others. They may also recommend patients to other medical specialists for appropriate examinations or treatments when necessary. 

  • Pulmonologist

Pulmonologists are medical doctors that specialize in diagnosing and treating lung conditions caused by inflammation, tissue overgrowth, and infection. The common lung diseases that pulmonologists treat include the following, asthma, aspergillosis, sleep apnea, tuberculosis, cystic fibrosis, lung cancer, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and tuberculosis, etc.

  • Endocrinologist

Endocrinologists are doctors that specialize in diagnosing and treating diseases involving the endocrine system. The part of the body that endocrinologists specialise in treating include the thyroid, ovaries, pancreas, hypothalamus and pituitary gland. Some of the common diseases that endocrinologists are trained to diagnose and treat include diabetes and thyroid diseases.

  • Oncologist 

Oncologists are medical doctors that specialize in diagnosing and treating cancer. They are also involved in overseeing the treatment process of cancer patients and managing their post-treatment care. 

  • Neurologist

Neurologists are medical practitioners that deal with disorders of the nervous system. They receive training to investigate, diagnose, and treat all categories of diseases and conditions involving the brain, the spinal cord, and the peripheral nerves. Some common neurological treatments that neurologists focus on include but aren’t limited to stroke, dementia, seizures, movement disorders and multiple sclerosis. 

  • Cardiothoracic surgeon

Cardiothoracic surgeons are specialists in operating on the heart and other chest organs. Cardiothoracic surgeons are trained to perform surgical procedures such as coronary artery bypass, heart valve surgery, aortic surgery, keyhole thoracic surgery, chest wall deformities and surgery on collapsed lungs. 

  • Family Health Physician 

Family health physicians focus on continuing comprehensive health care for the general population. Patients visiting a hospital for medical treatment, regardless of age, gender or disease,  would normally first meet a family health physician. The roles family health physicians play in the primary care system include diagnosis, preventive care, health-risk assessment, routine checkups and a range of other medical services. Also, they refer patients to other medical specialists when needed. 

  • Public Health Physician 

Public health physicians are medical professionals who received training in providing medical care to whole communities or groups of people. Public health physicians normally perform the following roles; disease prevention and health promotion, delivery of public health projects, and communicable disease control.


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