Seaports are maritime facilities that comprise wharves where cargo ships load or discharge cargoes. In Nigeria, the Nigerian Port Authority (NPA) is responsible for the supervision and regulation of the functions of the various seaports in Nigeria to ensure best practices. Seaports are remarkably significant in the revenue generation of the nation’s economy.
This is a list of seaports in Nigeria:
Lagos Port Complex ( Apapa Quays)
This is the earliest and largest seaport in Nigeria established in 1913. Thereafter deep water berth construction was effected in 1921. The Apapa Quays is duly equipped with facilities and cargo handling equipment required for effective discharge of port services. It also benefits from the intermodal connection of rail, water, and road transport. The Apapa Quays is best suited for handling oversized cargoes as it has a foul wheel gate of 8 meters. There are five private terminal operators with expert management and personnel, they are AP Moller Terminal Limited, ENL Consortium Limited, Apapa Bulk Terminal Limited, Greenview Development Nigeria Limited, and Lilypond Inland Container Terminal.
Apapa Quays offers 24 hours operation with an impressive vessel turnaround time. Eko Support Services Limited and Lagos Deep Offshore Logistics (LADOL) serve as Logistics bases to Apapa Quays. The Apapa Quays is in accordance with the security provision of International Maritime Organization (IMO) ISPC guidelines. It is located in Apapa, Lagos State.
Right from the pre-colonial era and during the colonial reign, the Calabar port was a major focus of trade with the outside world for the Eastern States. Up until December 1969, the Calabar port had been privately overseen and operated by several private shipping companies. The Federal Government met derelict facilities which spurred development, modernization, and expansion of the Old port, to upgrade the port to conveniently cater for the demands of the ever-increasing Nigerian economy. The 3rd National Development Plan of 1975-1980 saw the necessary renovations, development, and extension of the port.
On June 9, 1979, the new port complex was commissioned. The Calabar Port Complex now comprises the following: the Old Port, the New Port, and the Dockyard. The crude oil terminals at Antan, Odudu, Yoho, and QuaIboe, fall within the jurisdiction of Calabar Port Complex. Furthermore, the following jetties: NIWA, Maciver, Calcemo, NNPC, ALSCON, Dozzy, and Northwest, all fall under the jurisdiction of Calabar Port Complex. The ECM Terminals Limited, INTELS Nigeria Limited, and Shoreline Nigeria Limited are in charge of the operations of the terminals of the Calabar Port. The Calabar Port Complex is located in Cross Rivers State.
The Delta Ports is unique and possesses salient attributes that set it apart because of its potentials. Located in Delta State, the Delta Ports is advantageous to catchment states of Anambra, Imo, Delta, Edo, Kogi, Ondo, and Benue because of its shorter distance for haulage of cargoes. With a Security Level 1, Delta Ports guarantees the security of cargoes. The Container Handling Capacity of Delta Ports is 333,000 TEU, which allows the port to effectively handle all kinds of cargoes
There are eight multi-purpose terminals under the jurisdiction of Delta Ports which include: Terminal A, Old Port Warri; Terminal B, Old Port, Warri; Canal Berth, Warri; Terminal A, New Port, Warri, New Port B; Koko Port; Sapele Port; and Burutu Port. The terminals are operated by the Nigerian Port Authority (NPA), Messrs’ Ocean and Cargo Terminal Services Limited, Messrs’ Julius Berger Nigeria Limited, Messrs’ Associated Maritime Services, and Messrs’ Integrated Logistics Services (INTELS) Nigeria Limited. Also, twenty-six jetties lie within the jurisdiction of the Delta Ports.
The average turn-around time of six days for vessels and the capability of the Delta Ports to survive on captive cargoes over the years, among other potentials the port possesses, position the port as a viable economic driver to the region and Nigeria at large. The Nigerian Port Authority (NPA) has set plans in motion to make Delta Ports a hub of Merchant shipping which would create a significant impact on the economy of the country.
Situated in the Gulf of Guinea, the Rivers Port Complex is a multi-purpose port that provides pilotage and towage services to several jetties such as, to General Cargo New Berth, Shell Jetty, NPA Jetty, Okolobaratoru, and Oando tank farm, catering for Dry, Liquid, and General cargo trades. By the directive of the Federal Government on Private Sector Participation (PSP) in Port operations, the BUA Port and Terminal Limited and the Port and Terminal Operators Limited (PTOL) operate the terminals of the Rivers Port with the supervisory oversight of the Nigerian Port Authority (NPA). The Rivers Port Complex is guaranteed security of cargoes, ships, and port facilities by the International Maritime Organization’s (IMO) International Ship and Port Security (ISPS Code) guideline, in conjunction with the efforts of the Port Police, the Joint Task Force (JTF), the Marine Police and NPA Security officials.
With the reactivation of the rail systems across the country, the Rivers Port Complex stands to benefit immensely as this would lead to improved cargo throughput which would translate to increased revenue generation to the country and drastically cut down the transportation burden importers face and thereby would ensure Nigerian customers a reduction in prices or imported commodities. The Rivers Port is located in Rivers State.
Onne Port Complex
This is a port located strategically on the Bonny River Estuary occupying an area of 2,358.115 hectares. In Nigeria, it was the first seaport to employ the Landlord Port Model that introduced the participation of the private sector in the Port industry. The Onne Port is a multi-purpose Cargo port as it engages in General Cargoes, Dry and Wet Bulk Cargoes, Oil Well Equipment, Containerized Cargoes, and other Logistics Services, as well as Oil and Gas Operations. Located in the Oil and Gas Free Zone, it accounts for about 65% of the export cargo through the Nigerian Seaport.
Modern facilities and equipment are required for the optimum functioning of any contemporary seaport are available at the Onne Port. These facilities and equipment include the Liebherr 600, one of the biggest mobile cranes with a lifting capacity of 208 metric tonnes, and the Gmk5220 grove twin crane with the capacity of lifting 300-tons weight cargo. Security of cargoes, ships, facilities, and personnel is assured, as the Onne Port is on a Security Level One (1).
Tin Can Port
The Tin Can Port was established to reduce the congestion of Apapa Quays when the country experienced an increase in economic activities as a result of the oil boom. Construction began in 1976 with the capacity of handling 10-16 vessels at a time. On October 14, 1977, the Tin Can Port was commissioned. Since its inception, the Tin Can Port evolved and witnessed success in several dimensions making it standout due to the following: 24 hours pilotage services, handling of diversified cargoes, quick turnaround time of vessels, regular sea patrol of anchorages, jetties, and buoys, among others.
The terminal operators of the Tin Can Port include Josepdam Port Services Limited, Tin-Can Island Container Terminal Limited, Five Star Logistics, Ports and Terminals Multiservices, and Port and Cargo Handling Services. There are several jetties, farm tanks, and leases operating in Tin Can Island Port. The Tin Can Port is located in Lagos State.