A typical refinery is a production facility that is comprised of a group of chemical engineering unit processes and unit operators to convert raw materials into final products of value. In Nigeria, there are petroleum oil refineries situated in various parts of the country for the refining of crude oil. The downstream sector of the oil industry comprises four refineries; two refineries in Port Harcourt, one in Warri, and the other in Kaduna; all of which are under the control and administration of Nigeria National Petroleum Corporation (NNPC). However, the Department of Petroleum Resources (DPR) has issued several valid refining licenses to private companies seeking to operate in Nigeria.
This is a list of the refineries in Nigeria:
Port Harcourt Refining Company (PHRC)
The Port Harcourt Refining Company comprises two refineries, namely, the old refinery and the new refinery. The old refinery which was commissioned in 1965 was designed to possess a refining capacity of 60,000 barrels per stream day (bpsd). The old refinery occupies the Area 5 process area of the Port Harcourt Refining Company which is made of several units that include; crude distillation (CDU), liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) Unit, and the platform unit (CRU). Area 5, which is the old refinery also has the power and utility section which comprises turbo generators and boilers capable of generating electricity for the refinery. There is the availability of maintenance personnel with the responsibility of routine, programmed, and emergency maintenance repairs of equipment.
The new refinery of the Port Harcourt Refining Company was commissioned in 1989 with the capacity of producing 150,000 barrels per stream day (bpsd). The new refinery occupies Area 1 – 4 process areas of the Port Harcourt Refining Company. Area 1 has the crude distillation unit (CDU) for the production of finished petroleum products that include but are not limited to the following, kerosene, automotive gas oil (AGO), straight-run naphtha(SRN), straight-run gasoline (SRG), and liquefied petroleum gas (LPG). Area 2 comprises naphtha hydrotreating unit (NHU), catalytic reformative unit (CRU), kero hydrotreating unit (KHU), continuous catalyst regeneration unit (CCRU), hydrogen purification unit, fuel gas vaporizer unit, sour water treatment, and the caustic treatment unit. The fluid catalytic cracking unit (FCCU), had concentration unit, had treatment unit and oxidation unit are in Area 3. The dimersol unit, butamer isomerization unit, and the alkylation unit are in Area 4.
The PHRC has a combined crude processing capacity of 210,000 barrels per stream day (bpsd). The products from the refinery include liquefied petroleum gas, premium motor spirit, kerosene for aviation and domestic use, automotive gas oil, low pour fuel oil, high pour fuel oil, and unleaded gasoline. The Port Harcourt Refining Company is situated at Alesa, Eleme, Rivers State.
Kaduna Refining and Petrochemical Company (KRPC)
The Kaduna Refining and Petrochemical Company Limited is strategically located to cater to the ever-growing Northern markets. Occupying an area of 2 89 square kilometres was designed with safety, ease of maintenance, and reduction of operating costs in mind. King Wilkinson, a company from Hague, Netherland, in collaboration with the Nigeria National Petroleum Corporation (NNPC) engineers, developed the blueprint for the refinery. It was Chiyoda Chemical Engineering and Construction Company of Yokohama, Japan that was awarded the contract of constructing the refinery in 1977. The Fuel Plant was commissioned in 1980 upon completion, however, the Lubes Plant and the Petrochemical Plant were commissioned in 1983 and 1986 respectively.
A 30,000 MT/yr Linear Alkyl Benzene Plant which was under the then Petroleum Sector of NNPC was merged with the Lubes Plant, Fuel Plant, and Petrochemical Plant into a single subsidiary to form the KRPC in 1988. The end products from the Kaduna Refining and Petrochemical Company include liquefied petroleum gas, petrol motor spirit, automotive gas oil, kerosene, fuel oil, sulphur, bitumen, and waxes. The KRPC is located on KM 16 Kachia Road, Kaduna State.
Warri Refining and Petrochemical Company (WRPC)
The merger of the then Warri Refining and the Ekpan Petrochemical Plants in November 1988 led to the incorporation of Warri Refining and Petrochemical Company as a limited company. The Warri Refining and Petrochemical Company are built to produce 125,000 barrels per stream day (bpsd) of local crude. The following facilities are available in the WRPC towards the operation and functionality of the facility, nitrogen plants, had turbines and steam turbo generators, water treatment plant, compressed air systems and refinery, and petrochemical effluent water treatment plants. The electric power and utility section ensures the steady processing of crude into petroleum and petrochemical products. The WRPC is located at Refinery Road, Ekpan, Warri, Delta State.
Other refineries of which the Department of Petroleum Resources (DPR) issued valid operating licenses include;
Dangote Oil Refinery, Lekki Free Trade Zone, Lagos
The Dangote Oil Refinery sitting on 2635 is projected to produce 650,000 barrels per stream day upon completion which will make it Africa’s biggest oil refinery. With a 1100 kilometres pipeline infrastructure capable of handling 3 billion standard cubic foot of gas per day, it would be the largest in the world. The Dangote Oil Refinery would be capable of processing local crude of Nigeria as well as other crudes. The 400 megawatts power plant of the facility is capable of proving the electricity needs of the refinery.
- Waltersmith Refining and Petrochemical Company Limited, Ibigwe
- OPAC Refinery, Kwale
- Niger Delta Petroleum Resources, Ogbele, Rivers State
- Edo Refinery and Petrochemical Company Limited, Ikpoba-Okha, Edo State
- Lowrie Refinery Limited, Ika North, Delta State
- Excel Refinery Limited, Ekeremor, Bayelsa State
- Conodit Nigeria Limited, Delta State
- Azikel Petroleum Limited, Yenagoa, Bayelsa State
- Alexis Refinery Limited, Aboh, Ndokwa-East, Delta State
- Allegiance Energy and Power Limited, Esit Eket, Akwa Ibom State
- Atlantic International Refineries and Petrochemical Limited, Brass, Bayelsa State
- Amakpe International Refinery, Ibeno, Akwa Ibom
- Grazingstock Petroleum Company Limited, Ndokwa-East, Delta State
- Resources Petroleum and Petrochemicals International Inc., Akwa Ibon State
- Kingdom Global Trading Petroleum, Ughelli South, Delta State
- Frao Oil Nigeria Limited, Uzere, Delta State
- NPDC/ND Western OML 34, Ughelli-North, Delta State
- Gasoline Associates International Limited, Ipokia, Ogun State
- Etopo Energy Plc., Burutu, Delta State
- Ogini Refinery Limited, Kwale, Delta State
- Clairgold Oil and Gas Engineering Limited, Koko, Delta
Several of these companies have begun the construction of these refineries at varying degrees of completion. Notable among them include Dangote Oil Refinery which