Fish farming is one of the most lucrative businesses in Nigeria. Thinking of starting a cool business that can fetch you cool cash? Consider having a fish pond. Having artificial fish ponds is a way you can breed fish in a super-controlled setting. There are different types of fish ponds in Nigeria, ranging from the Earthern ponds, Concrete ponds, Mobile fish ponds, Cage and Pen culture, and the plastic tank. In this article, these different types of fish ponds would be discussed extensively.
The types of fish ponds in Nigeria would be looked into below:
Concrete ponds are ponds constructed with hollow blocks filled with a concrete mix or reinforced concrete slabs. Concrete ponds are mostly constructed in urban areas. In these areas, the land is scarce hence the earthen pond can not be built. When constructing concrete ponds, make sure there Is a proper drainage system.
Concrete ponds are way easier to manage because it is relatively affordable, but they are more expensive than earthen ponds. They are also more expensive to maintain in comparison to earthen ponds. When building concrete ponds, ensure that the ponds aren’t too big. This is because big ponds require reinforcement with rods, and this can create a dent in your pocket as the cost of constructing reinforcements is way expensive, thereby increasing the cost of construction.
Note that the water inlet should be sited on the higher level of the pond, while the water outlet should be on the lower level to ensure proper drainage. The most suitable site for building a concrete pond is upland and not swampy land. Also, when building a concrete pond, consider the cost of plumbing, the cost of cement, gravel, and sand, the cost of fertilization, and the cost of labour in the form of farm hands and helpers. All these factors are to be considered before constructing a concrete pond.
Concrete ponds have several advantages such as having a high output and yields thereby leading to regular sales. Concrete ponds are easy to manage. They also have good farm security hence predation is controlled. Sorting the fish is also very easy thus making the operation of running the farm simple.
The disadvantages of concrete ponds include the following; when constructing a concrete pond, the construction of a drainage system is 100 percent compulsory. Concrete ponds also require a high volume of water.
Earthern pond is a system that involves the development of ponds on bare land. The whole technique of building an earthen pond involves digging a hole in the ground about 1m to 2m deep.
The construction of this type of pond does not need too much design. Whatever way you decide to construct is fine provided it meets the needs of the fish you want to breed. The main requirement is proximity to constant water supply, that is the pond should be close to a good source of stable water. The construction of this type of pond can be done either mechanically or manually. Whatever way you choose to construct it all depends on your financial capabilities.
Some farmers decide to build this type of fish pond in swampy areas. What these farmers do is allow natural water to fill the pond and then control the water to prevent excesses as flooding could lead to severe loss and damage.
If you don’t build the earthen pond in a swampy area, and natural water is not available, you could always pump water using an electric pump. All you need to do is to make sure you prevent any form of excess water.
Before building this type of pond, you have to consider the topography of the land. Make sure the water inlet is on the higher side of the land while the outlet is on the lower level. This particular act prevents flooding. Also, ensure that the pond is not too deep, and not too shallow. The consequences of making your pond too shallow include flooding after rainfall and exposure of the fish to their dangerous natural enemies. If the pond is too deep, the farmers won’t be able to manage the farm properly during harvest and this can pose a problem.
Earthen ponds have several advantages such as they are cheaper to build and do not require electricity. The risk of disease outbreaks is relatively low and one does not have to be trained to manage the farm. What about the disadvantages? Earthern ponds have low sales since the farms are located in under-developed areas. The fish in earthen ponds are prone to poaching and danger. Earthern ponds also have a low stocking viscosity. The pond is exposed to environmental risks and pollution. With the earthen pond system, sorting fish could be difficult and there is also a low recovery rate.
Cage and Pen Culture
Cage and Pen culture systems are mostly adopted in rivers, streams and lagoons. In pens, which are shallow water enclosures, the fish would be reared in open water. These pens are fitted on the floor of the water. While in cages, the enclosures are suspended in water and anchored on the water bed.
Mobile Fish Ponds
A mobile fish pond system is a pond system that farmers without land employ. Farmers who also live in rented buildings also use this pond system. It is made of plastics or wood.
The plastic tanks are kept with a roof over them and are properly constructed with pipes that bring water in and take water out. These pipes regulate the quality of water in the fish pond. Before constructing this type of pond system, consider the cost of buying the wood or plastic tanks. Also, consider the cost of constructing the borehole which would be used to supply water to the tanks. Another factor to consider is the cost of installation of the pipes that bring water in and out of the tank.
There are many advantages of the mobile fish pond system such as the pond could be dismantled at any time and transferred to a different site. Mobile fish ponds also maximize land and water usage. They do not have high construction and installation cost. Another advantage of mobile fish ponds is that their by-products are priced higher because the farms are located in urban areas. Also, management of the pond is easy hence there is a low maintenance cost.