Types of Farming Systems in Nigeria

Farming systems in Nigeria are of different types depending on the scale of agricultural practice. We would be discussing the various farming systems in Nigeria in this article. 

Types of Farming Systems in Nigeria

The farming systems in Nigeria would be discussed below:

  • Crop Rotation System 

The crop rotation system is a farming system in Nigeria that involves the cultivation of different types of crops on a particular piece of land during different planting seasons and when the yield of the land reduces, the farmer leaves the land for a while without planting on it. 

Crop rotation system helps to control erosion by strategically enhancing soil stability. This farming system boosts productivity by reducing fallow periods. The crop rotation system of farming reduces weed and pest coercion. 

What happens when you grow the same type of crops on the same piece of land for several planting seasons in a row without a break is that the soil would gradually lose some of its nutrients. It is safe to say that crop rotation improves the soil structure and soil organic matter. It increases Soil Organic Carbon content by adding nutrients to the soil.

Crop rotation is also used to control pests and diseases that have made the soil their home. This farming system also decreases the quantity of soil lost from erosion. It improves farm productivity by contributing to the increase in farm yields through the abundance of soil nutrition.

  • Urban Farming System

The urban farming system is a farming system mostly practiced by farmers who reside in urban areas and cities. What this means is that people in towns and cities would not necessarily depend on food from the rural areas since farming, processing and distribution of food in the said towns and cities would be done by farmers that reside there.

The urban farming system provides extra income for farmers who cultivate food for both commercial and subsistence purposes. Since the farmers and their farms are located in towns, their products would command more monetary value. Hence, this farming system is more sustainable. It requires less space as land is not abundant in urban areas.

The urban farming system also ensures food security and revenue generation in the country. This farming system saves time and energy that would have been used in transporting food items from rural areas.  It ensures that people in the urban cities and towns have access to affordable, fresh and healthy farm produce at all times. It also allows them to learn about healthy eating lifestyles and growing their food.

  • Irrigated Farming System

The irrigated farming system is farming involves supplying water to farmlands that lack the necessary water content that is required for adequate crop growth. What this farming system does is improve soil fertility and enhance healthy crop growth. 

Irrigation ensures that the farmers have massive financial benefits since the cash crops they plant grow well and are well catered for. The irrigated farming system improves groundwater storage. This system ensures that plants grow in seasons when rainfall is not sufficient. It sees to it that the moisture content of the soil is intact. 

The irrigated farming system promotes proper germination of seeds and also helps the plants to absorb mineral nutrients in the soil as well as promotes the growth of roots of the plants. One of the setbacks of this farming system is that it could lead to waterlogging which could also hinder plant growth. This water logging can be corrected with proper drainage.

  • Mixed Farming System

Mixed farming system is a farming system that involves the use of a single piece of land for different agricultural activities such as combining crop farming and livestock farming. It is a common practice for livestock farmers. The livestock usually ploughs the land. The livestock also provides manure from their dung which promotes rapid crop growth. 

Mixed farming system ensures that the land produces yield at every point. There are constant farming activities taking place on the farm all the time. Since the manure gotten from the livestock fertilizes the land hence increasing farm yield, the farmer gets a massive profit due to the multiple farming activities taking place. 

Mixed farming practice ensures that farm costs are minimized since the animals feed on the crops. It also promotes the recycling of waste products thereby reducing the emission of harmful greenhouse gases. It also reduces the risk of disease and pest outbreaks on the farm. 

Mixed farming system provides the farmers with the opportunity to have money to use to buy different farm machinery. It can be said that this type of farming system improves the livelihood of the farmer drastically as he tends to be busy and productive all year round.

  • Tree Crop Farming System

Tree crop farming system is a farming system that involves the cultivation of tree crops like coffee, oil palm, cocoa, and rubber. These tree crops are mostly used as raw materials for industries to manufacture things. In this farming system, food crops mostly grown for consumption are also planted in between the tree crops.

Livestock can also be reared alongside tree crop cultivation. These animals could feed on shrubs in the farm and also produce manure from their droppings which could enhance soil fertility.

  • Root Crop Farming System 

The root crop farming system is a farming system in Nigeria that is very productive in terms of yield. This particular farming system is common in regions where drought is common. It ensures that the livelihood of farmers in such drought-prone areas is protected.

In this farming system, the crops planted have deep roots so that they can get their nutrients to aid their productivity. In regions where plants that have shallow roots would not produce well due to a lack of nutrients in the soil, the deep-rooted plants would function well.

It is common knowledge that root crops such as potatoes, cassava, yam, and cocoyam play an important role in our Nigerian diet. Garri, fufu, lafun and the rest are obtained from root crops. Also, alcohol and beer are obtained from root crops. These root crops also enhance soil fertility. 


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