Pig farming which is often referred to as piggery is the act of rearing piglets or weaners till they mature. Pigs are one of the most versatile animals, domesticated for different purposes. Some rear pigs as pets, some even eat them, use them in making leather or for commercial purposes. This article however highlights disadvantages associated with Pig farming in Nigeria. Are you a business person or farmer who wants to go into pig farming or are thinking of investing in it, read on below to know more about the disadvantages associated with Pig farming.
Disadvantages of Pig Farming in Nigeria
Profitability on a piggery farm is measured by the ability to facilitate the birth, weaning, and fattening of piglets on an annual basis. However, the profitability in terms of production is limited or threatened especially in Nigeria, due to piglet mortality (high death rates of piglets)
Piglet mortality is caused by a number of factors which are mentioned below and doubles as disadvantages of pig farming in Nigeria.
Cannibalism: Some aggressive Pigs eat their piglets during farrowing. Once these Pigs taste blood, they keep licking the navels of the Piglets till they eventually tear the newborn apart.
Crushing: After birth, a Pig could crush her child when she is moving around the pen. She could step or sleep on the Piglets.
Lousy Sows: Some Sows can simply refuse to breastfeed their little ones.
Biting and Eating of Piglets: Some Sows eat their new-borns.
Diarrhea: Piglets are susceptible to diseases such as Diarrhoea. This usually happens when they are looking for a source of water. They then tend to drink urine or eat other dirty things in the pen.
Susceptibility to diseases
Just like with any other type of business and agricultural business in particular, there are risks involved, such as disease outbreaks. Pigs are prone to diseases of different kinds. This is especially common in Piglets and could result in a high mortality rate and a great loss for the farmer. When there is a disease outbreak, the farmer must do all to control it fast. Asides diseases that can kill the Piglets themselves, there are also some that human beings are susceptible to, such as ringworm. Some can also result in life-threatening illnesses. While the remedy to this is making sure one cooks pork well so that any diseases will be destroyed by the heat. However, this is a challenge to the farmer and can discourage the demand for Pigs.
Returns take time
When about to engage in Pig farming, bear in mind that you will need to be patient before breaking even. You start to break even around 24 months and making profits time after that. If you are involved in Pig fattening, you can expect to make profits every 8 months, that is if you raise weaners to the market weight. You can make a profit every 5 months if you raise growers to market weight. So, before making profits from breeding at 24 months, you can make money by engaging in fattening and making sales every 10 months. The entire process, from gestation to maturity is long and the waiting process can be excruciatingly tedious if you do not have another source of income.
Pigs are not readily everywhere in Nigeria
Another disadvantage to Pig farming is that it is not readily available or accepted everywhere in Nigeria. It is in fact a taboo in some parts of the country (Northern Nigeria). In Nigeria, many are not aware of the nutritional benefits of Pork. Remember, this will affect your business and you must put this into consideration before starting pig farming in Nigeria.
Wrong selection of the initial herd
If you are not careful enough to select healthy pigs as your initial herd when starting your business, you will run at a huge loss. Ensure you purchase pigs only from trusted and reputable sources.
High cost of water and electricity
To rear Pigs, you will make use of much water. This has posed as a disadvantage to Pig rearing in Nigeria. This is because of the high cost and unavailability of water in many areas of the country.
Poor quality pig feed: This may turn results in low yield or even death of Pigs.
Lack of training for your farm workers
Pig farming is very delicate. If you do not properly manage your farm, you will run at a huge loss. Bad practices by farmers or their workers result in a huge loss for Pig farmers and investors. Hence, you must train your farm workers well.
Pigs can smell really bad. One of the greatest mistakes Pig farmers do is to not isolate the Pigs and away from residential areas. The smell of Pig farms is a high air pollutant agent. The foul smell comes from its dung and urine. Even after cleaning a Pig house, it still has the smell. It is just best not to have a Pig farm near a residential area.
Pigs are known to be noisy. Hence, it also can be a source of pollution. This is another reason why you cannot locate a Pig farm near to where people live. Noise can affect the health of others and cause sicknesses such as high blood pressure, heart attack, insomnia, and even depression. When you want to have a Pig farm, ensure you find a very much isolated place because of the noise and smell.
Pig rearing and Pork consumption is against some people’s religious beliefs and doctrines, especially in Nigeria. Some might be against you doing this business. Also, if you are living or want to do business in an area where the majority find Pork and Pigs offensive, you can be sure this is a bad move. It will result in much loss for you. When you want to start a Pig farm, make proper research on the area and the people who live here to ensure they have nothing against the crux of your business.